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What is a soma and its function

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The surface of the axon contains hundreds of thousands of miniscule mechanisms called ion channels. Mitochondria use oxygen and glucose to produce most of the cell's energy. They function as an "antennae" of the neuron and are covered by thousands of synapses. They contain the recycled neurotransmitters and different substances from the extracellular medium: Interneurons are the neurons that provide connections between sensory and motor neurons, as well as between themselves.

They are covered with synapses connections from many other neurons and combine the signals they get from these synapses. This page has been accessed 33, times. Dendrites are branch-like structures structures surrounding the cell body.

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The dendrites are connected to the cell body. It produces all the proteins for the dendrites, axons and synaptic terminals and contains specialized organelles such as the mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, secretory granules, ribosomes and polysomes to provide energy and make the parts, as well as a production line to assemble the parts into completed products.

A fiber made up of many axons is called a nerve. Dendritic spines are small outgrowth of the cell membrane of the dendrite. It is from here that the electrical firing known as an action potential usually occurs. When the charge enters the axon, the ion channels at the base of the axon allow positively charged ions to enter the axon, changing the electrical balance between inside and outside. The neuronal membrane serves as a barrier to enclose the cytoplasm inside the neuron, and to exclude certain substances that float in the fluid that bathes the neuron.

The direction of flow of information is usually one way at these junctions.

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The dendrites contain dendritic organelles: The Axon Hillock The axon hillock is where the axon is joined to the cell. Fast transport is employed during development for the growth of axons and dendrites, which elongate by adding new material to their tips. The advantages of saltatory conduction are:. When information is received from another neuron, the dendrites pass the signal to the cell body. The nucleus is another organelle that serves a vital purpose to the functioning of the neuron.

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Some examples include sensory neuronswhich bring information from the environment to the brain; motor neurons, which transmit information from the brain to the body to create movement; and interneurons, which make up most of the mass of the brain.

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